State Unionism Rankings: Do Highly Unionized States have Higher Unemployment?

Union employment in the U.S. continued to shrink this past year.  Nationwide union participation stands at 12.3% which is a slight decline from 2008.

The BLS 2009 Annual Union Affiliation by Statesurvey was recently published.  It has brought increased attention to the union movement. Union policy will further be in the spotlight this week as the Senate wrestles with the nomination of Craig Becker, a clearly pro-union candidate, to the National Labor Review Board.  See GOP’s Senate Gain Clouds Prospect of Obama’s Labor Board Nominee.  In view of this upcoming debate, we thought it would be helpful to take a deeper look at state unionization and employment.


Let’s take a look at state unionization.

New York is the most unionized state in the nation with 27.2% of its population working for a union.  More than 1 in four workers are represented by a union in New York.  Hawaii at 24.3% is the second most unionized state at 24.3%, followed by Alaska at 23.6%.  Washington, Michigan, and New Jersey are heavily unionized states with about 20% union participation rates.

The least unionized state is North Carolina at 4.4%.  Only one in 23 workers in North Carolina are represented by a union, a sharp difference as compared to New York.  Additional states with low union participation rates are Arkansas at 5.0%, Virginia at 5.4%, South Carolina at 5.4% and Georgia at 5.9%

Twenty seven states had decreased union participation in 2009 as compared with 2008.  States with low union participation rates generally became less so in 2009 and those states with union growth were primarily already highly unionized.  There are 22 states with right to work laws in the U.S.  Right to work laws generally do not require employees to pay fees or join a union even if voted in.

A look at union participation and unemployment shows states with high union participation rates are closely associated with higher unemployment.

The five Worst States for Employment in 2009 were Michigan, Rhode Island, Nevada, California and South Carolina.  All but South Carolina are highly unionized states.  The Worst States for Employment in 2009 generally were highly unionized states.

Worst States for Employment and Union Participation

 

 

The Best States for Employment in 2009 were North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Oklahoma and Kansas. All but Iowa have unionparticipation rates below the U.S. average and would be classified asstates with low unionization.  If you are looking for a job, look at states with low unionization.  They tend to have less unemployment. See  Best and Worst States for Jobs: Will Jobs Improve in 2010 for the rankings of all states by employment.  The list of Best States for Employment and Union Participation follows:

Best States for Employment and Union Participation



The list of Unionism by State follows:

Unionism by State


Union membership has been in a long term decline since 1983 when BLS first started measuring it in a consistent way.  Union participation was 20.1% of the working population in 1983.  It is now approximately 40% lower at 12.3%.  For the first time in 2009, the majority of union members now work for the government and not for private, for profit entities.  These state workers are on average paid significantly more than private industry.  Making it easier for government workers to unionize will only push labor costs higher and cost the taxpayers more.  Political leaders should be trying to keep these costs in check. (The average federal worker’s pay is $71,206 as compared to $40,331 in the private sector and is growing above inflation rates) The Obama administration’s labor policy approach creates a conflict with its responsibilities to protect the taxpayer. Increased unionization will increase our cost of government.  If the Obama administration is serious about job creation and deficit control, it may want to reconsider this approach.  Unions and job creation generally do not have a positive correlation.  Watch the news this week as it relates to Craig Becker.  It will have implications for jobs and deficits.

Best and Worst States for Jobs: Will jobs improve in 2010?

The Bureau of Labor Statistics released state unemployment for December 2009 today.  Every state in the U.S. saw its unemployment rate rise in 2009.

The Best State for Jobs and Employment in 2009 was North Dakota.  It had the lowest unemployment rate in the nation at 4.4%.  Its unemployment rate increased by 1.1% in 2009.  South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Oklahoma and Kansas were also Top States for Jobs and Employment.

The Worst State for Jobs and Employment in 2009 was Michigan.  Its unemployment ended the year at 14.6%, an increase of 4.4% in 2009.  21 states and D.C. saw their unemployment ranks increase by 3% or more in 2009.  2009 was a very bad year for those seeking employment.  Nevada, Rhode Island, South Carolina, California and D.C. all were Worst States for Jobs and Unemployment in 2009.  They all have unemployment rates of 12% or higher.

Minnesota and North Dakota had the smallest unemployment increases in 2009 with increases of only 0.8%. The Worst States for Unemployment Increases were West Virginia and Nevada which had increases of 4.6% in unemployment.  The list of Best and Worst States for Jobs and Employment is below.  It is presented from best to worst based on year over year changes.  Politically, these are very poor numbers for the Obama administration.  With the large health care bill off the table for now, let’s hope businesses will become a little more willing to hire in 2010.

Best and Worst States for Jobs

Source:  Bureau of Labor Statistics

Best States for Jobs September 2009, 48 States See Opening Decreases

We ran our September 2009 Best and Worst States for Job openings.  Job Openings dropped an alarming 6.2% on September 30 as compared to July 31.  This is particularly discouraging as we had seen our only increase in job openings this year in July.  This reversal ratifies the year long downward trend.  We develop our analysis from data listed by the nation’s largest job posting service CareerBuilder.com.  It is a good proxy for job openings nationwide.

Job Openings nationwide shrank in September to 217,040 from 231,370 in July, a drop of 14,330 job openings.

48 States saw jobs shrink.  Alaska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana saw the biggest percentage job opening lossesKentucky Jobs, with an increase of only 180 job openings. and Utah Jobs, up 30, were the Top States for Jobs and the only 2 states in the nation that showed improvement since July 31.

California Jobs shrank the most numerically with an 1197 loss at September 30. Texas Jobs, Florida Jobs and Pennsylvania Jobs showed large losses in numbers in September.  ( I will post analysis of Job Opening Losses during the Obama Administration after unemployment numbers are released for September)

The list of Best and Worst States for Jobs as of September 2009 follows:

30-Sep 31-Jul +/- % Change
1 California 22253 23450 -1197 -5.10%
2 Texas 18219 19373 -1154 -5.96%
3 Florida 14072 14927 -855 -5.73%
4 New York 12410 12667 -257 -2.03%
5 Illinois 11243 11747 -504 -4.29%
6 Pennsylvania 10407 11193 -786 -7.02%
7 New Jersey 7901 7938 -37 -0.47%
8 Ohio 8171 8286 -115 -1.39%
9 Virginia 7162 7547 -385 -5.10%
10 North Carolina 6486 6860 -374 -5.45%
11 Maryland 5928 6128 -200 -3.26%
12 Georgia 5824 6470 -646 -9.98%
13 Arizona 5357 5701 -344 -6.03%
14 Massachusetts 5261 5269 -8 -0.15%
15 Michigan 5177 5443 -266 -4.89%
16 Washington 4407 4940 -533 -10.79%
17 Indiana 5282 5589 -307 -5.49%
18 Missouri 4518 5109 -591 -11.57%
19 Colorado 3815 3937 -122 -3.10%
20 Tennessee 4627 4862 -235 -4.83%
21 Connecticut 3893 4271 -378 -8.85%
22 Wisconsin 3855 4816 -961 -19.95%
23 Minnesota 3494 3754 -260 -6.93%
24 South Carolina 3239 3470 -231 -6.66%
25 Kansas 2816 3281 -465 -14.17%
26 Louisiana 2898 3067 -169 -5.51%
27 Kentucky 3468 3285 183 5.57%
28 Iowa 2268 2460 -192 -7.80%
29 Alabama 2352 2883 -531 -18.42%
30 Oklahoma 2115 2339 -224 -9.58%
31 Nevada 1718 1864 -146 -7.83%
32 Oregon 1808 1986 -178 -8.96%
33 Mississippi 1475 1684 -209 -12.41%
34 New Mexico 1435 1468 -33 -2.25%
35 Utah 1370 1340 30 2.24%
36 Arkansas 1292 1557 -265 -17.02%
37 Nebraska 1135 1139 -4 -0.35%
38 Delaware 996 1030 -34 -3.30%
39 Alaska 659 1058 -399 -37.71%
40 Hawaii 668 748 -80 -10.70%
41 West Virginia 832 914 -82 -8.97%
42 New Hampshire 671 705 -34 -4.82%
43 Rhode Island 633 722 -89 -12.33%
44 South Dakota 497 664 -167 -25.15%
45 Idaho 741 813 -72 -8.86%
46 Vermont 600 608 -8 -1.32%
47 North Dakota 299 465 -166 -35.70%
48 Maine 509 539 -30 -5.57%
49 Montana 458 585 -127 -21.71%
50 Wyoming 326 419 -93 -22.20%
Entire U.S. 217040 231370 -14330 -6.19%

Will California’s Tax Proposal do any good?

California has always had a wild streak.  This week California’s new tax proposal reinforced that image.

The Commission on the New 21st Century Economy  issued its report this week on a radical new tax structure for California.  Like all political taxing plans it has its good and bad aspects.  It did, however, increase discussion about what California needs to do to become an attractive state for business and individuals.

Here are the recommendations of the Commission: (My comments are in red)

  • Reduce Personal Income Tax (PIT) for every taxpayer – Reduce the number of tax brackets from six to two. The new tax rate would be 2.75 percent for taxable income up to $56,000 for joint filers ($28,000 for single) and 6.5 percent for taxable income above that amount. These changes would retain the PIT’s progressive nature but reduce income tax rates for all taxpayers. The proposal would reduce the amount of income tax paid by 29 percent.  (This is Good)
  •  Eliminate the corporation tax and minimum tax – Eliminate the corporate tax, which is currently at 8.84 percent. The $800 minimum franchise tax should also be eliminated. (This is Good)
  •  Eliminate the state general purpose sales tax – Eliminate the current 5 percent state sales tax, with the exception of the sales tax on gas and diesel fuels which would continue to be dedicated to transportation. Elimination of the sales tax would phase in over five years. (This is Good)
  • Establish a business net receipts tax (BNRT) – Establish a new tax, not to exceed 4 percent, applied to the net receipts of businesses. Small businesses with less than $500,000 in gross annual receipts would be exempt from this tax. This tax would have a much broader base than the sales tax (since it would apply not only to goods but also to services and to sales into the state from businesses located outside the state) and, unlike the sales tax, be deductible against federal taxes. (This is very very Bad)
  •  Create an independent tax dispute forum – This forum would provide taxpayers with a forum for resolving disputes with the state. (This is Good)

I have discussed previously why California is a Worst State.  It over taxes, over regulates and is costly do business there.  See our previous post California Facts Suggest it is a Worst State

This proposal does not appear to fix these problems.  It just shuffles the burdens around a little by being according to the Commission “revenue neutral.”

“This is the most significant tax policy proposal in three decades,” said Assemblyman Chuck Devore (R-Irvine). “But the chances of this getting approved, as is, are zero percent.”  The LA Times reported the proposal is unlikely to pass.  See LA Times story Tax commission report falls flat, but it’s a start

With the U.S. in the midst of a severe job shrinkage, it is only a matter of time that some states and legislatures start getting serious about creating an environment conducive to job creation.  Cutting tax burdens and tax rates will be a strong first step in getting the job engine going.  California’s proposal unfortunately is not a step in the right direction. It will remain a Worst State for Taxes even if it passes the Commission’s recommendations.

NY Jobs: Where are they? Will they come back?

The New York State Labor department today released its August 2009 NY Job numbersNY Jobs are scarce and NY Unemployment reached its highest level since May 1993.  Statewide unemployment reached 9.0% up from 5.7% a year ago.

New York City Unemployment is more of a problem for the New York.  NYC Unemployment reached 10.3% in August up from 6% a year ago.  September will be worse as September nationwide unemployment has already been reported and has increased again. This is a real problem for the NY State government since the NYC market is the real engine for tax revenues.  With a huge deficit the state needs a vibrant NYC job market.

The chart from the NYSLD follows:

Unemployment Rates* (seasonally adjusted)

August 2009* July 2009 August 2008
New York State 9.0 8.6 5.7
United States 9.7 9.4 6.2
New York City 10.3 9.5 5.9
NYS, excluding NYC 8.0 7.9 5.5
*Data are preliminary and subject to change.

We have reported for some time the issues in NY and they appear to be getting worse.  New York is now a Worst State for Jobs.

Employers look at many factors when creating jobs.  Cost of living, taxation, regulatory environment are just a few.

NY and particularly NYC has one of the highest cost of livings in the country.  See our previous Cost of Living by State

NYC has one of  highest marginal tax rates in the nation.  (See Tax Freedom Day by State  and State Individual Tax Rates )

The NY State Government is raising taxes in all types of areas and increasing regulatory costs for businesses. See States Raising Taxes

These facts suggest NY will have a tough job market for the foreseeable future.  If you are looking for a job, NY will suffer for a while.  See how NY Job Openings rank nationwide at Best States for Job Openings

What will its state leaders do to make it more competitive?  High Cost, High Taxes and Lots of Regulation does not attract new business or jobs.  How can state leaders say NY is a business friendly state? Comments?

Unemployment Up in Every State

The US States continued to see rising unemployment in June. 16 States, if you count DC, now have unemployment rates greater than 10.0%. 38 states and DC saw increases from May. All 50 states and DC have higher unemployment than a year ago.  Our national unemployment rate was 9.5% in June.  The July national jobless numbers will be released on August 7.

Michigan continues to be the Worst State for Jobs with a 15.2% jobless rate. North Dakota is the Best State for Jobs with only a 4.2% unemployment rate.

3 of the 5 largest states by population have rates greater than 10.%  They are California, Florida and Illinois. California has more than twice as many jobless as any other state with 2.146 million jobless in June.  California has  the most unemployed people in the nation.  The next largest amount of unemployed are in Florida with 970,000 jobless in June according to BLS statistics.

We will be releasing shortly our updated analysis of job openings. Unemployment will continue to rise until more job openings start to appear.  List of Best and Worst States for Jobs is below.

1 Michigan 15.2
2 Rhode Island 12.4
3 Oregon 12.2
4 South Carolina 12.1
5 Nevada 12
6 California 11.6
7 Ohio 11.1
8 North Carolina 11
9 District of Columbia 10.9
10 Kentucky 10.9
11 Tennessee 10.8
12 Indiana 10.7
13 Alabama 10.6
14 Florida 10.6
15 Georgia 10.5
16 Illinois 10.5
17 Mississippi 9.8
18 Missouri 9.5
19 West Virginia 9.4
20 New Jersey 9.2
21 Washington 9.2
22 Wisconsin 9.2
23 Arizona 8.9
24 Massachusetts 8.7
25 New York 8.7
26 Maine 8.5
27 Alaska 8.4
28 Delaware 8.4
29 Idaho 8.4
30 Minnesota 8.4
31 Pennsylvania 8.3
32 Connecticut 8
33 Colorado 7.6
34 Texas 7.5
35 Hawaii 7.4
36 Maryland 7.3
37 Arkansas 7.2
38 Virginia 7.2
39 Vermont 7.1
40 Kansas 7
41 Louisiana 6.8
42 New Hampshire 6.8
43 New Mexico 6.8
44 Montana 6.4
45 Oklahoma 6.3
46 Iowa 6.2
47 Wyoming 5.9
48 Utah 5.7
49 South Dakota 5.1
50 Nebraska 5
51 North Dakota 4.2

Source:  Bureau of Labor Statistics

Schwarzenegger “California Best State.” Facts Don’t Support Claim

Governor Schwarzenegger put the Best and Worst States debate in the news during a July 3 San Francisco news conference.  See Sacramento Bee.com

California regularly shows up as one of the Worst States in the union based on many important indicators.  Yet the Governor recently attempted to make a case for California being the best! He did not make a very persuasive case.  He claimed a diversified economy should be the benchmark to judge a best state.

Gov. Schwarzenegger said, “We are the best place simply because of we are a diversified economy,”

“What state has entertainment, music, agriculture, biotechnology, nanotechnology, green technology, high technology?”

We strongly disagreeCalifornia regularly ranks as one of the Worst States.

Here are just a few of the facts and measurements:

California has the Worst Credit rating of all 50 states in the country.  It has no money and is currently issuing iou’s.

California is rated 47th, a Worst State for Entrepreneurship and Small Businees, according to the Small Business and     Entrepreneurship Council.  CEO’s have ranked it the Worst State for 5 years in a row according to Chief Executive Magazine.

It is rated 49th, for  Best and Worst States for Individual Income Taxes according to the Tax Foundation.

California has the 2nd highest marginal income tax rate in the nation at 10.3%.  Only Hawaii is higher.

According to Missouri Economy.org  California is the 2nd highest cost of living state in the country, behind only Hawaii.

California has the highest gas tax in the nation. See Best and Worst States for Gasoline Taxes.

California has the most unemployed people in the nation and has the 5th highest unemployment rate in the nation with 11.5% of     its population unemployed.

California has the most job red tape and licensing requirements of any state in the nation according www.reason.org with a nation     leading 177 job license requirements.

California has the 3rd most political convictions in the nation according to the Report to Congress on the Activities and Operations of     the Public Integrity Section.

Governor how can you say California is the best?

“Look at other states. … Texas? Oil. Florida? Old people. Whatever,” he said. “We have a whole bunch of things.”

Taking shots at Texas and Florida was also uncalled for and does not make the case for California.  These states rank far better than California regularly and are considered as top states for growing business. Both states’ populations enjoy zero personal income taxes.  Gov. Schwarzenegger should focus on California and not bash other states that are in far better position than his.

“California is doing very well,” he said. “We just have to get out of this crisis.”

We are all for Governors being salespeople for their states.  In this case Gov. Schwarzenegger telling the world that California is the best is just not believable.  The facts suggest otherwise.  Look in other states if you are thinking of relocating.


Job Openings Drop Nationwide by 9.3% in last 45 days, California Worst, 44 States show Decreases

Career Builder Job Openings Drop 9.35%Nationwide in Last 45 Days
44 States Decrease, Only 6 States Increase

California Worst State for Declines, North Dakota up 28.08%

Best and Worst States.com, the leading site for facts and lists about States, released analysis today on job opening data using Careerbuilder job openings as a proxy for job activity.  Career Builder is the nations largest job posting site.  Nationwide job openings dropped 9.35% to 213,077 from 235,059 during the 45 day period starting on January 29, 2009 and ending on March 14, 2009.  Job openings are those that have been posted within the last 30 days.

44 States showed decreases in job openings in the last 45 days while only 6 showed increase.  The biggest job opening decline was in California.  Job openings declined to 21,723 on March 14th from 25,855 on January 29, 2009, a decline of 4,132 job openings.  California unemployment was recently announced at 10.1%, the 4th worst in the nation.  California, the nations most populous state, also has the most job openings in the country yet the number is quite low compared to the size of the population. Typically job openings are a leading indicator of future employment.

All large employment states showed job opening declines including New York, Illinois, Texas and FloridaIllinois showed the largest decline in percentage terms at -20.99%.  Illinois unemployment is currently at 7.9%, tied for 34th in the nation.

States that showed increases were typically small states with low unemployment.  The total number of increases was also small.  North Dakota showed the largest percentage increase in job openings at 28.08% yet it only increased by 123 job openings.  North Dakota’s unemployment was only 4.2% in January, the 2nd lowest in the nation. Alaska increased by 20.75% and had the largest state job opening increase at 167.  Alaska unemployment is at 7.9%, tied for 34th in the nation.  Other states showing increases were South Dakota with an increase of 62, Maine with 13, Utah with 29 and Iowa with 27.  Wyoming, the state with the lowest unemployment, also showed a slight increase of job openings with just 10.  It also has the fewest job openings in the nation on career builder.

Edward M. Kopko, Editor of Best and Worst States, said, “ Job Openings have dropped quite quickly since President Obama has taken office.  The unemployment rate is unlikely to improve until job openings start to increase.  The trend clearly indicates increased unemployment.”

BestandWorstStates.com, is the leading site for facts and lists about states.  Ed Kopko, its editor, during his career has written and developed extensive research on business matters and employment.  The site develops and publishes data about a number of issues important to people.  Topics include state tax policy, social issues, jobs, lifestyle and matters that help citizens be more knowledgeable about the states they live.  www.bestandworststates.com.

Job Openings By State

14-Mar-09 29-Jan-09 % Change
1 California 21723 25855 -15.98% -4132
2 Texas 18340 20051 -8.53% -1711
3 Florida 14573 15174 -3.96% -601
4 New York 11792 13057 -9.69% -1265
5 Illinois 10826 13702 -20.99% -2876
6 Pennsylvania 9853 11141 -11.56% -1288
7 New Jersey 7760 8628 -10.06% -868
8 Ohio 7506 8276 -9.30% -770
9 Virginia 6725 7186 -6.42% -461
10 North Carolina 6335 6803 -6.88% -468
11 Maryland 6146 6552 -6.20% -406
12 Georgia 5508 5992 -8.08% -484
13 Arizona 5124 5992 -14.49% -868
14 Massachusetts 5112 6168 -17.12% -1056
15 Michigan 5015 5541 -9.49% -526
16 Washington 4606 4914 -6.27% -308
17 Indiana 4578 4731 -3.23% -153
18 Missouri 4270 4458 -4.22% -188
19 Colorado 4143 4214 -1.68% -71
20 Tennessee 4132 4413 -6.37% -281
21 Connecticut 4008 4531 -11.54% -523
22 Wisconsin 3710 4314 -14.00% -604
23 Minnesota 3535 4193 -15.69% -658
24 South Carolina 3223 3136 2.77% 87
25 Kansas 3115 3236 -3.74% -121
26 Louisiana 2958 3494 -15.34% -536
27 Kentucky 2749 2763 -0.51% -14
28 Iowa 2526 2499 1.08% 27
29 Alabama 2437 2567 -5.06% -130
30 Oklahoma 2170 2269 -4.36% -99
31 Nevada 1735 1865 -6.97% -130
32 Oregon 1722 1832 -6.00% -110
33 Mississippi 1545 1548 -0.19% -3
34 New Mexico 1363 1423 -4.22% -60
35 Utah 1265 1236 2.35% 29
36 Arkansas 1258 1414 -11.03% -156
37 Nebraska 1077 1230 -12.44% -153
38 Delaware 976 1057 -7.66% -81
39 Alaska 972 805 20.75% 167
40 Hawaii 787 865 -9.02% -78
41 West Virginia 784 856 -8.41% -72
42 New Hampshire 694 694 0.00% 0
43 Rhode Island 650 707 -8.06% -57
44 South Dakota 647 585 10.60% 62
45 Idaho 642 665 -3.46% -23
46 Vermont 612 659 -7.13% -47
47 North Dakota 561 438 28.08% 123
48 Maine 462 449 2.90% 13
49 Montana 444 508 -12.60% -64
50 Wyoming 383 373 2.68% 10
Entire U.S. 213077 235059 -9.35% -21982

Source:  Bestandworststates.com, careerbuilder.com
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Best States For Jobs, Worst States for Jobs

Best and Worst States for Jobs

Unemployment increased in February to 8.1% nationwide.  The labor department just released the latest state numbers for January.

Wyoming is the Best State for Jobs with unemployment of only 3.7%.  North Dakota, Nebraska, South Dakota and Utah are in the Top 5 Best States for Jobs.

The Worst State for Jobs is Michigan with its unemployment now at 11.6%.  There are now 4 states in the U.S. that have unemployment rates above 10%.  South Carolina, Rhode Island and California are the other 3 Worst States for Jobs with rates above 10%.  North Carolina at 9.9% is also a Worst State for Jobs and will probably be above 10% next month.

The unemployment rate in states will be going up again when February is released as the national average has already increased and been released. We will keep you posted.

List of State Unemployment is below.

State Rate
1 WYOMING 3.7
2 NORTH DAKO 4.2
3 NEBRASKA 4.3
4 SOUTH DAKO 4.4
5 UTAH 4.6
6 IOWA 4.8
7 OKLAHOMA 5
8 LOUISIANA 5.1
8 NEW HAMPSH 5.1
8 NEW MEXICO 5.1
11 WEST VIRGIN 5.3
12 MONTANA 5.6
13 KANSAS 5.8
14 VIRGINIA 6
15 HAWAII 6.1
16 MARYLAND 6.2
17 ARKANSAS 6.4
17 TEXAS 6.4
19 COLORADO 6.6
19 IDAHO 6.6
21 DELAWARE 6.7
22 VERMONT 6.8
23 WISCONSIN 6.9
24 ARIZONA 7
24 NEW YORK 7
24 PENNSYLVANI 7
27 CONNECTICU 7.3
27 NEW JERSEY 7.3
29 MASSACHUSE 7.4
30 MINNESOTA 7.6
31 ALABAMA 7.8
31 MAINE 7.8
31 WASHINGTON 7.8
34 ALASKA 7.9
34 ILLINOIS 7.9
36 MISSOURI 8
37 FLORIDA 8.6
37 GEORGIA 8.6
37 TENNESSEE 8.6
40 KENTUCKY 8.7
40 MISSISSIPPI 8.7
42 OHIO 8.8
43 INDIANA 9.2
44 DISTRICT OF 9.3
45 NEVADA 9.4
46 NORTH CAROL 9.7
47 OREGON 9.9
48 CALIFORNIA 10.1
49 RHODE ISLAN 10.3
50 SOUTH CAROL 10.4
51 MICHIGAN 11.6

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